stephen connolly // projects // machine space


#1.2 representation of space 2 < >

Maps represent the accumulated thought and labor of the past … about the milieu we simultaneously live in and collaborate on...(Wood 1992)

Residential Security Maps guided the awarding of Federal mortgage guarantees from the late 1930s onwards. These guarantees became mandatory for mortgage lending, and only awarded to certain residential areas.

The maps divided urban areas into four zones of neighbourhood 'quality.' Lending risk was correlated with subjective 'quality' assessments undertaken by local realtors. The lowest grade D or red-lined areas were refused loans. This practice was outlawed by the 1977 Community Reinvestment Act.

Below the Greater Detroit 1939 Residential Security Map gradings are mapped onto the contemporary city. Since doing thius project, PolicyMap have digitised HOLC Maps for urban areas across the US - more info here

Crossney, K.B. and Bartelt, D.W. (2005). Residential Security, Risk, and Race: The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
and Mortgage Access in Two Cities.
Urban Geography 26:707–736