stephen connolly // projects // machine space


#2 representation of space 2 < >

Maps represent the accumulated thought and labor of the past … about the milieu we simultaneously live in and collaborate on...(Wood 1992)

Residential Security Maps guided the awarding of Federal mortgage guarantees from the late 1930s onwards. These guarantees became mandatory for mortgage lending, and only awarded to certain residential areas.

The maps divided urban areas into four zones of neighbourhood 'quality.' Lending risk was correlated with subjective 'quality' assessments undertaken by local realtors. The lowest grade D or red-lined areas were refused loans. This practice was outlawed by the 1977 Community Reinvestment Act.

Below the Greater Detroit 1939 Residential Security Map gradings are mapped onto the contemporary city. Loveland are mapping each residential lot in the city, attaching property condition, price and tax information.

Crossney, K.B. and Bartelt, D.W. (2005). Residential Security, Risk, and Race: The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation and Mortgage Access
in Two Cities.
Urban Geography 26:707–736
Shapiro, T.M. (2004). The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality. Oxford University Press
Massey, D.S. and Denton, N.A. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Harvard University Press
Wood, D. (1992). The Power of Maps. New York: The Guilford Press